In republics with a parliamentary system (such as India, Germany, Austria, Italy and Israel), the head of state is generally called president, and the main functions of these presidents are mainly ceremonial and symbolic, unlike presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system. Heads of state generally enjoy maximum inviolability, although some states allow impeachment proceedings, or similar constitutional proceedings allowing the highest legislative or judicial authorities to revoke the mandate of the head of state for exceptional reasons. It may be a common crime, a political sin or an act by which he or she violates provisions, such as an established religion, that is obligatory for the monarch. In the case of a similar procedure, an initial warrant may be rescinded. Since the adoption of the governmental instrument in Sweden in 1974, the Swedish monarch no longer has many of the usual parliamentary functions that previously belonged to him, as had been the case in the previous governmental instrument of 1809. Today, the spokesman of the Riksdag appoints the Prime Minister (after a vote in the Riksdag) and ends his commission after a vote of no confidence or a voluntary resignation. Cabinet members are appointed and removed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. Laws and regulations are promulgated by two cabinet members in a “In the Name of Government” signature, and the government – not the monarch – is the high-level contracting party for international treaties. The remaining official functions of the sovereign, by constitutional mandate or by unwritten convention, are the opening of the annual meeting of the Riksdag, the reception of foreign ambassadors and the signing of letters of appeasement for the Swedish ambassadors, Chairman of the Advisory Committee for Foreign Affairs, Chairman of the Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs, when a new Prime Minister enters office and be informed by the Prime Minister of State Affairs.
 Examples of heads of state in parliamentary systems who use greater powers than usual, either because of obscure constitutions or unprecedented national emergencies, are the decision of King Leopold III of the Belgians to surrender in 1940 against the will of his government on behalf of his state to the invading German army. When he felt that his responsibility to the nation, because of his coronation wound, encouraged him to act, he believed that his government`s decision to fight instead of surrender was wrong and would harm Belgium. (Leopold`s decision proved to be very controversial. After World War II, Belgium voted in a referendum so that it could resume its monarchical powers and duties, but because of the continuing controversy, it eventually went on.) The Belgian constitutional crisis in 1990, when the head of state refused to sign a law authorizing abortion, was decided by the cabinet which took the power to enact the law, even though it was considered “unable to govern” for 24 hours.   In most states, whether republics or monarchies, the executive belongs to the head of state, at least in theory. In presidential systems, the head of state is the de facto executive. In the context of parliamentary systems, executive power is exercised by the head of state, but in practice on the advice of the ministerial cabinet. The result is terms such as “Her Majesty`s Government” and “Government of Her Excellency.” Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, India, Italy, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom are examples of parliamentary systems in which the head of state is a fictitious leader. (2) The President of the Russian Federation is the guarantor of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, of human and citizen rights and freedoms.